Disorders Treated

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Adult Hydrocephalus  [+/-]

Adult hydrocephalus is a condition in which excessive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulates within the ventricles of the brain. Among adults, hydrocephalus may be indicated by symptoms that include severe nausea and vomiting, sleep problems, migraine-like headaches, general lethargy, exhaustion, vision problems and irritability. The condition can result from brain injury, stroke or diseases such as Alzheimer dementia. The condition can sometimes be treated by inserting a shunt into the ventricular system of the brain, allowing the problematic excess fluid to be released.

ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Lou Gehrig disease)  [+/-]

A rapidly progressive, fatal disease, ALS affects nerve cells (neurons) in the brain and spine that control voluntary muscle movement (e.g., walking, breathing, chewing, talking). These neurons degenerate and die and, therefore, stop sending messages to muscles in the body. People with ALS lose strength and become unable to move their arms and legs and to hold their bodies upright. Some become unable to breathe on their own. Studies suggest that some patients may develop problems with thinking skills that involve language fluency, decision-making, and memory. Although ALS is inherited in a small number of patients, most instances have no known cause. ALS has no cure; treatment is provided to improve symptoms.

Alzheimer Dementia [+/-]

Alzheimer dementia is a progressive brain disorder that impacts patients’ memory and their ability to function normally. The disease affects reasoning ability and communication skills and may also cause personality and behavior changes, anxiety and irritability, or even delusions. Alzheimer dementia is now recognized as the leading cause of dementia. After initially attacking parts of the brain that control memory, the disease will also destroy other areas, affecting other body functions. Many conditions, such as chemical imbalances or head injury, can cause similar symptoms to Alzheimer dementia, and doctors can only diagnose the disease after a thorough examination.

Arachnoid Cysts [+/-]

Arachnoid cysts (ACs) are fluid-filled sacs between the brain or spine and the arachnoid membrane, which covers the brain and spinal cord. Primary ACs are present at birth and are the result of early developmental brain and spine abnormalities. Secondary ACs are not as common and develop as a result of head injury, meningitis, or tumors, or a complication of brain surgery. Most individuals with ACs develop symptoms before age 20, but some people never have symptoms.

Typical symptoms of a brain AC include headache, nausea and vomiting, seizures, hearing and visual disturbances, vertigo, and balance and walking difficulties. Spinal ACs cause such symptoms as progressive back and leg pain and tingling or numbness in the legs or arms. Diagnosis usually involves a brain or spine scan using diffusion-weighted MRI.

Arteriovenous Malformation  [+/-]

Arteriovenous malformations are defects within the human circulatory system. These defects are believed to develop in utero or soon after birth. The most damaging varieties of arteriovenous malformations affect the brain or spinal cord. Though most of these defects cause limited or no symptoms at all, a small percentage (12 percent, according to the National Institutes of Health) can result in symptoms that include headaches, seizures, paralysis, vision problems, communication problems, memory problems, confusion and dementia. Medication can treat some arteriovenous malformations, though others require surgery.

Back Pain  [+/-]

One of the most common of all health problems, back pain will affect four of every five adults. Countless conditions can cause back pain, including everything from simple strained muscles and poor posture to severe injury or illness. Among the specific conditions that cause back pain are herniated discs, spinal stenosis, spondylosis (arthritis of the back), cancer of the spine and infection of the spine. Treatment options vary.

Brain Injury  [+/-]

A traumatic brain injury is a blow to the head that results in a disruption of the functioning of the brain. These injuries can range from mild—relatively small injuries that result in temporary changes in function—to severe. Severe brain injuries can result in coma or long-term amnesia. Nearly 1.5 million people sustain a brain injury each year.

Brain Metastases  [+/-]

Brain metastases are tumors that first grow in tissues elsewhere in the body before spreading to the brain. Metastasis to the brain is a common complication of systemic cancers and is a significant cause of death. According to some statistics, roughly 170,000 new cases of brain metastasis occur each year in the United States, and some experts believe incidence of metastasis to the brain may be increasing. Lung, breast, melanoma, renal and colon cancers are the most common causes of metastasis to the brain.

Brain Tumors  [+/-]

Each year, nearly 200,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with the more than 120 varieties of brain tumors—either primary or metastatic—and brain tumors are now the leading cause of solid tumor death among children under 20. Because of their location in the brain, these tumors can have devastating effects on a person’s ability to function. Among the many symptoms of brain tumors are headaches, seizures, personality changes, nausea or vomiting, and memory loss. Only a third of patients diagnosed with brain tumors survive five years following diagnosis.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome  [+/-]

When the median nerve, which runs from the forearm into the palm, becomes pressed or squeezed at the wrist, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) can result. Symptoms usually start gradually, with numbness, tingling, weakness, and pain in the hand and wrist. Sometimes no direct cause can be found; contributing factors include trauma or injury to the wrist that causes swelling; thyroid disease; rheumatoid arthritis; and fluid retention during pregnancy. The disorder usually occurs only in adults.

Cerebral Aneurysm  [+/-]

Cerebral aneurysm is a weak spot on the wall of a brain artery or vein (like the weak spot on the inner tube of a tire) that is prone to dilation, bulging or ballooning. Aneurysms can form from injury or infection or from simple wear and tear—they are much more common in adults than in children. Some small aneurysms may produce no symptoms, while larger ones may cause loss of feeling in the face or vision problems. In the moments before an aneurysm bursts, symptoms may include nausea, headache or loss of consciousness. Ruptured aneurysms require emergency treatment, usually followed by surgery.

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Shunt Malfunction  [+/-]

Shunt malfunction is a partial or complete blockage of the shunt that causes it to function intermittently or not at all. When a blockage occurs, CSF accumulates and can result in symptoms of untreated hydrocephalus. A shunt blockage from blood cells, tissue, or bacteria can occur in any part of the shunt.

Chiari Malformations  [+/-]

Chiari malformations are structural defects in the base of the skull and cerebellum, the part of the brain that controls balance. These defects can result in blockage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, the liquid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord). Symptoms include dizziness, muscle weakness, numbness, headache, and problems with hearing, balance, and coordination. Chiari malformations are classified into Types 1 through 4, which are determined by the severity of the disorder and the parts of the brain that protrude into the spinal canal.

Chronic Pain  [+/-]

Unlike acute pain, which generally results from specific injury or illness, chronic pain can result from any number of conditions and can persist for years. Among the most common forms of chronic pain are headache, cancer pain, low back pain, arthritis and psychogenic pain, which is not rooted in any specific injury or condition. Treatments for chronic pain are numerous as well—medication, surgery, acupuncture and psychotherapy are among the techniques doctors can use to treat chronic pain.

Concussion [+/-]

Concussions are mild traumatic brain injuries that occur when a force causes the brain to rapidly move back and forth inside the skull. Concussions temporarily impair how the brain functions and processes information. For example, after a concussion, a person may have difficulty with balance, coordination, memory, or speech. Concussions may or may not involve loss of consciousness. Rest and restriction of activities allow the brain to recover.

Concussions occur in many sports, affect all athletes, regardless of age, and cause a wide range of symptoms. Symptoms are not always obvious. Symptoms may appear right away or may be delayed for several days after injury. The most common symptoms include drowsiness, headache, loss of consciousness, memory loss, irritability, confusion, balance problems, dizziness, difficulty speaking and communicating, depression, nausea and vomiting, changes in sleep patterns. Most athletes fully recover from concussion within 7 to 10 days. However, once an athlete has sustained a concussion, he/she is at greater risk for additional concussions, and repeat concussions can have long-term consequences.

Degenerative Disorders  [+/-]

Degenerative disorders include a large number of diseases and conditions that affect the normal functioning of the body and include such neurologic conditions as Alzheimer dementia, Parkinson disease, and vascular dementia, and disorders of the spine such as spondylosis and stenosis. Among the many other degenerative disorders are multiple sclerosis, Alexander disease and chorea.

Dementia  [+/-]

Dementia is the name given to a group of conditions—Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease among them—that destroy mental function by attacking brain cells. So-called vascular dementia results from reduced blood flow to the nerve cells of the brain. Among the other conditions that result in dementia are Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, frontotemporal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies.

Developmental Disorders of the Nervous System  [+/-]

Pervasive developmental disorders cause delays in the development of basic skills, including emotional, behavioral and social skills. Among the numerous conditions that belong to this group of disorders are Asperger and Rett syndromes. The most commonly known developmental disorder, autism, is believed to affect up to 1.5 million Americans.

Dystonia  [+/-]

Dystonias are movement disorders in which sustained uncontrollable muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive involuntary and sometimes painful movements or abnormal postures. The movements may affect a single muscle; a group of muscles (e.g., those in arms, legs, or neck); or the entire body. Early symptoms may include deterioration in handwriting, foot cramps, or a dragging foot after running or walking. Other possible symptoms are tremor and voice or speech difficulties. Approximately half of cases are not connected to disease or injury and are called primary or idiopathic dystonia. No cure exists for dystonia, but it can usually be effectively managed.

Epilepsy  [+/-]

Epilepsy is a neurologic disorder that results in recurring disturbances of brain function that can cause impairment or loss of consciousness, as well as abnormal movements or behavior. Epilepsy is often diagnosed after patients have experienced two seizures not caused by some other condition. Epilepsy can result from brain injury or genetic predisposition.

Essential (familial) tremor  [+/-]

Essential tremor is the most common form of abnormal tremor—an unintentional, somewhat rhythmic, muscle movement that involves to-and-fro movements of one or more body parts. In some, tremor is mild and nonprogressive; in others, it progresses slowly. Hand tremor is most common, but head, arms, voice, tongue, legs, and trunk may also be involved. Hand tremor may cause problems with purposeful movements such as eating, writing, sewing, or shaving. Head tremor may be seen as "yes-yes" or "no-no" motions. Heightened emotion, stress, fever, physical exhaustion, or low blood sugar may trigger tremors or increase their severity. Children of a parent with essential tremor have up to a 50% chance of inheriting the condition.

Frontotemporal dementia  [+/-]

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) describes a clinical syndrome associated with shrinking of the frontal and temporal anterior lobes of the brain. As defined in 2019, the symptoms of FTD fall into 2 clinical patterns that involve either changes in behavior or problems with language. The first type features behavior that can be impulsive (disinhibited) or bored and listless (apathetic) and includes inappropriate social behavior, lack of social tact, lack of empathy, distractability, loss of insight into one’s own behavior or that of others, an increased interest in sex, changes in food preferences, agitation or (conversely) blunted emotions, neglect of personal hygiene, repetitive or compulsive behavior, and decreased energy and motivation. The second type primarily features symptoms of language disturbance, including difficulty making or understanding speech. Frontotemporal dementia often runs in families.

Gait Disorders (neurologic) [+/-]

Many body systems, such as strength, coordination, and sensation, work together to allow a person to walk with what is considered a normal gait. Abnormal gait occurs when one or more of these interacting systems are not working smoothly, causing a person to be unable to walk in the usual way.

At times, an acute problem, such as a bruise, cut, or fracture, may result in a person finding it difficult to walk. These conditions may cause someone to temporarily walk differently, but they are not considered causes of abnormal gait. However, several diseases can attack the nervous system and legs and result in abnormal gait. Some of the most common causes are injuries or broken bones in the legs or feet, arthritis, tendonitis, infections in the soft tissue of the legs or in the inner ear, cerebral palsy, stroke, and psychological disorders.

Headaches  [+/-]

One of the most common of all health problems, headaches result from the interaction of the brain, nerves and blood vessels. Headaches occur when certain nerves in blood vessels and muscles of the head are activated, sending pain signals to the brain. There are 150 different categories of headache, including common types such as migraine headaches, tension headaches and cluster headaches. More than 45 million Americans suffer from chronic headaches, and 28 million suffer from migraines. Treatment options for headaches can range from medication to counseling.

Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension  [+/-]

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (known by some as “pseudotumor cerebri”) is a condition that occurs when pressure inside the skull increases for no obvious reason. Signs and symptoms include headache, vision loss that may occur rapidly, nausea, vomiting without nausea, pulsating sounds within the head, ocular palsies, altered level of consciousness, back pain and papilledema (condition in which optic nerve at back of eye becomes swollen). Papilledema that lasts a long time may lead to visual disturbances, optic atrophy, and eventually blindness.

Intracerebral Hemorrhage  [+/-]

An intracerebral hemorrhage is a condition in which a ruptured blood vessel causes bleeding inside the brain, flooding brain tissue with blood. The excess blood causes a pressure buildup, which can damage brain cells. Emergency treatment is needed, which usually involves medications and close monitoring in an intensive care unit. In rare cases, surgery may be needed to relieve pressure around the brain.

Lewy Body Dementia  [+/-]

Dementia with Lewy bodies is one of the most common types of progressive dementia. The central features include progressive decline in thinking skills, “fluctuations” in alertness and attention, visual hallucinations, and parkinsonian motor symptoms, such as slowness of movement, difficulty walking, or rigidity. People may also suffer from depression

Migraine  [+/-]

The pain associated with migraine headaches is often described as intense pulsing or throbbing in one area of the head. However, the International Headache Society diagnoses a migraine by its pain and number of attacks (at least 5 that last 4–72 hours if untreated); additional symptoms include nausea, vomiting, or both, and sensitivity to both light and sound. Roughly 1/3 of affected individuals can predict onset of a migraine because it is preceded by an "aura" (visual disturbances that appear as flashing lights, zig-zag lines, or a temporary loss of vision). People with migraine tend to have recurring attacks triggered by a number of different factors, including stress, anxiety, hormonal changes, bright or flashing lights, lack of food or sleep, and dietary substances. Investigators believe that migraine may have a genetic cause.

Movement Disorders  [+/-]

Movement disorders are neurologic conditions that affect a patient’s ability to move. They can affect how quickly a patient can move (dyskinesia), cause involuntary movement (hyperkinesia) or interfere with movement entirely (hypokinesia). Among the many movement disorders are ataxia, dystonia, essential tremor, Huntington disease and Tourette syndrome. Parkinson disease, possibly the most widely known movement disorder, affects more than 1 million people. The disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that causes rigidity, slow movement, difficulty in walking and other symptoms.

Multiple Sclerosis  [+/-]

Multiple sclerosis is a disease that affects the central nervous system by destroying a fatty tissue called myelin. When myelin is destroyed, nerve fibers are unable to function properly, resulting in the signature symptoms of MS. Those symptoms include fatigue, difficulty in walking, depression, bladder dysfunction, memory problems and vision problems. Approximately 400,000 Americans have MS. Most are diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 50. The disease generally affects more women than men.

Muscular Dystrophy  [+/-]

The muscular dystrophies (MD) are a group of more than 30 genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles that control movement. Some forms of MD are seen in infancy or childhood, and others may not appear until middle age or later.

Duchenne MD, the most common form, primarily affects boys. With onset at 3 to 5 years of age, the disorder progresses rapidly. Girls in these families have a 50% chance of inheriting and passing the defective gene to their children. Becker MD is similar to Duchenne MD but less severe. Facioscapulohumeral MD, which usually begins in the teen years, causes progressive weakness in muscles of the face, arms, legs, and around the shoulders and chest. It progresses slowly and can vary in symptoms from mild to disabling. Myotonic MD is the disorder's most common adult form and is typified by prolonged muscle spasms, cataracts, cardiac abnormalities, and endocrine disturbances.

Myasthenia Gravis  [+/-]

Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscle groups. It is believed that the condition affects more than 20 people in every 100,000. Myasthenia gravis most often affects the muscles that control the eyes and eyelids, chewing, swallowing, coughing, facial expression, and movement of the arms and legs. A complete medical evaluation and any number of tests may be used to diagnose the condition. Treatments include medication, thymectomy and plasmapheresis, but there is no cure.

Neurodegenerative Disease  [+/-]

Neurodegenerative disease is an umbrella term for a range of conditions that primarily affect the neurons in the nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord. Incurable and debilitating, it results in progressive degeneration of nerve cells. Examples of neurodegenerative diseases include Parkinson disease, Alzheimer and other dementias, and Huntington disease.

Neuromuscular Disorders  [+/-]

Neuromuscular disorders are diseases that affect the functioning of the nerves, muscles and neuromuscular junctions, or synapses. Included among neuromuscular disorders are muscular dystrophies, a group of more than 30 diseases that cause progressive degeneration of the muscles. The most common of the muscular dystrophies, Duchenne MD, primarily affects boys, with onset occurring between the ages of 3 and 5. No cure exists for the muscular dystrophies. Treatments can include physical therapy, respiratory therapy, speech therapy, the use of orthopedic appliances and surgery.

Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus  [+/-]

Normal pressure hydrocephalus is an abnormal buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain that occurs if normal flow throughout the brain and spinal cord is blocked. Although it can occur in people of any age, it is most common in the elderly. Symptoms include progressive mental impairment and dementia, problems with walking, and impaired bladder control. The person also may have a general slowing of movements or may complain that his or her feet feel "stuck." Doctors may use a variety of tests, including brain scans (CT, MRI), a spinal tap, intracranial pressure monitoring, and neuropsychological tests, to help them make an appropriate diagnosis.

Parkinson Disease  [+/-]

Parkinson disease (PD) belongs to a group of conditions called motor system disorders that result from the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. The 4 primary symptoms of PD are tremor (trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, face), rigidity (or stiffness of limbs and trunk), bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability (or impaired balance and coordination). PD usually affects people over age 60. Early symptoms are usually subtle and occur gradually. As they worsen, patients may have difficulty walking, talking, or completing simple tasks. The disease can be difficult to diagnose accurately. Doctors may sometimes request brain scans or laboratory tests in order to rule out other diseases.

Peripheral Nerve Entrapment and Injuries  [+/-]

As nerves leave the spine, they course through the body and are vulnerable to compression (entrapment) at any point. They can be trapped by acute injuries or chronically compressed through repetitive activities. A pinched nerve can cause tingling, numbness, pain or weakness and occurs when pressure is applied to a nerve by surrounding tissue. Among the causes of this pinching are injury, repetitive motion, joint disease, and even pregnancy.

Common nerve entrapment syndromes are carpal tunnel syndrome (compression of median nerve, which causes hand pain), meralgia paresthetica (compression of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, which causes thigh pain); piriformis syndrome (compression of sciatic nerve by the piriformis muscle, which causes pain commonly called sciatica), and cubital tunnel syndrome (compression of ulnar nerve at elbow, which causes forearm and hand pain).

Peripheral Neuropathy [+/-]

Peripheral neuropathy is damage to the peripheral nervous system, which is the system responsible for sending information from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body. More than 100 types of peripheral neuropathy exist, and the symptoms vary widely. In some instances, peripheral neuropathy may cause relatively minor symptoms such as tingling, numbness or muscle weakness. In more severe cases, symptoms may include paralysis or organ dysfunction. Peripheral neuropathy can be caused by injury, alcoholism, tumors, and any number of disorders and diseases. There is no cure for peripheral neuropathy, but the condition can be treated and symptoms can be alleviated through therapy and healthy living.

Spasticity  [+/-]

Spasticity, one of the signature symptoms of muscular sclerosis, results in a feeling of stiffness and muscle spasms. Mild spasticity may result in only the discomfort of muscle tightness, while more severe spasticity may cause painful and uncontrollable spasms of the arms and legs. It is more common in the legs. Treatments include medication and exercise.

Spinal Cord Injury  [+/-]

Spinal cord injuries typically result from traumatic injury to the spine. These traumatic injuries can fracture or dislocate the vertebrae, causing bone fragments or other material to damage spinal cord tissue, including the axons. Axons are extensions of nerve cells that are responsible for carrying signals from the brain to the rest of the body. When axons are destroyed, those signals are interrupted and paralysis can occur. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. Complete spinal cord injuries result in a total lack of function below the point of spinal injury.

Spinal Pain  [+/-]

Back pain often occurs because something is affecting the way your spinal joints, muscles, discs, and nerves fit together and move. Some common symptoms are (a) stiffness in the lower back, restricting range of motion; (b) inability to maintain normal posture because of stiffness or pain; (c) muscle spasms with activity or at rest; (d) pain that persists for a maximum of 10–14 days; and (e) loss of motor function (such as the ability to tiptoe or heel walk).

Possible causes include herniated or slipped discs, bulging discs, and degenerative disc disease, inflammation and wear of the sacroiliac joint, spinal stenosis, cervical radiculopathy, spondylolisthesis, accidents, and injuries. To determine the exact cause, your physician may order one or more neurodiagnostic studies, including x-ray, MRI, CT, and EMG/NCS.

Spinal Stenosis—Cervical and Lumbar  [+/-]

Spinal stenosis (or narrowing) is a common condition that occurs when the small spinal canal, which contains the nerve roots and spinal cord, becomes compressed, which causes a “pinching” of the spinal cord, nerve roots, or both and leads to pain, cramping, weakness, or numbness.

Spinal stenosis commonly occurs in the neck and lower back and is often caused by age-related wear and tear. Symptoms, if they occur, include pain, numbness, muscle weakness, and impaired bladder or bowel control. Treatment includes medication, physical therapy, and possibly, surgery.

Spinal Tumors  [+/-]

A spinal tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue cells within or surrounding the spinal cord or spinal column. These cells grow and multiply uncontrollably, seemingly unchecked by the mechanisms that control normal cells. Spinal tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The cause of most primary spinal tumors is unknown. Some may be attributed to exposure to cancer-causing agents; some are common in people with compromised immune systems. Some evidence shows that there may be a genetic component.

Non-mechanical back pain, especially in the middle or lower back, is the most frequent symptom of both benign and malignant spinal tumors. Depending on the location and type of tumor, other signs and symptoms can develop, especially as a tumor grows and compresses on the spinal cord, the nerve roots, blood vessels, and bones of the spine. Additional symptoms can include loss of sensation or muscle weakness in the legs, arms, or chest; stiff neck or back; difficulty walking; decreased sensitivity to pain, heat, and cold; loss of bowel or bladder function; paralysis that may occur in varying degrees and in different parts of the body, depending on which nerves are compressed; scoliosis or other spinal deformity.

Stroke  [+/-]

A stroke results from the blocking of an artery (due to blood clot) or from the bursting of a blood vessel in the brain. When a blockage or burst vessel occurs, blood flow to the brain is interrupted, brain cells die and brain function is damaged. Among the functions that can be affected by stroke are movement, speech and memory. Strokes vary in severity. They are the third-leading cause of death in America and the No. 1 cause of adult disability, but doctors say that 80 percent of strokes are preventable. Maintaining healthy habits can go a long way toward preventing stroke.

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  [+/-]

A subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs when blood leaks into the space between two of the membranes surrounding the brain. A swollen blood vessel, or aneurysm, usually ruptures and causes the condition. A hemorrhage of this type can lead to a stroke and often has severe consequences. The main symptom is a sudden, severe headache. Hospital care is needed for supportive care and to stop bleeding and limit brain damage. Treatment may include surgery or catheter-based therapy.

Transient Ischemic Attack  [+/-]

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a stroke that lasts only a few minutes. It happens when the blood supply to part of the brain is briefly blocked. Although TIA symptoms are like other stroke symptoms, they do not last as long. Symptoms, which include weakness on one side of the body, vision problems, and slurred speech, are transient and often resolve within 24 hours. However, a TIA still requires immediate medical attention to distinguish from an actual stroke.

Traumatic Brain Injury  [+/-]

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain. It can result when the head suddenly and violently hits an object or when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue. TBI symptoms can be mild, moderate, or severe, depending on the extent of the damage to the brain. A person with a mild TBI may remain conscious or may experience a loss of consciousness for a few seconds or minutes. Other symptoms of mild TBI include headache, confusion, lightheadedness, dizziness, blurred vision or tired eyes, ringing in the ears, bad taste in the mouth, fatigue or lethargy, a change in sleep patterns, behavioral or mood changes, and trouble with memory, concentration, attention, or thinking. A person with a moderate or severe TBI may show these same symptoms, but may also have a headache that gets worse or does not go away, repeated vomiting or nausea, convulsions or seizures, an inability to awaken from sleep, dilation of one or both pupils of the eyes, slurred speech, weakness or numbness in the extremities, loss of coordination, and increased confusion, restlessness, or agitation.

Trigeminal Neuralgia  [+/-]

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also called tic douloureux, is a chronic pain condition that causes extreme, sporadic, sudden burning, or shock-like facial pain that typically is felt on one side of the jaw or cheek and seldom lasts more than a few seconds or a minute or two per episode. The intensity of pain can be physically and mentally incapacitating. Episodes can last for days, weeks, or months at a time and then disappear for months or years.

In the days before an episode begins, some patients may experience a tingling or numbing sensation or a somewhat constant and aching pain. Attacks often worsen over time, with fewer and shorter pain-free periods before they recur. The intense flashes of pain can be triggered by vibration or contact with the cheek (such as when shaving, washing the face, or applying makeup), brushing teeth, eating, drinking, talking, or being exposed to the wind. TN occurs most often in people over age 50 but can occur at any age, and is more common in women than in men. Although sometimes debilitating, the disorder is not life-threatening.

Vascular Dementia  [+/-]

Vascular dementia, a general term that describes problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, memory, and other thought processes, is caused by brain damage from impaired blood flow to the brain. Vascular dementia can develop after a stroke blocks an artery in the brain, but strokes do not always cause vascular dementia. Controlling conditions that affect heart health can slow disease progression. Drugs used in the treatment of Alzheimer disease may help to control cognitive symptoms.

Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems  [+/-]

Vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels, which includes veins, arteries, and capillaries) occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks a blood vessel. It can also be caused by other immune system disease, by an allergic reaction to medicines or toxins, and by certain blood cancers that trigger an immune system reaction. The resulting reduced blood flow can permanently damage the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nervous system, and other organs and tissue. Symptoms include headache (especially headache that does not go away), fever, weight loss, confusion or forgetfulness leading to dementia, swelling of the brain, pain, vision problems, trouble speaking or understanding, muscle weakness and paralysis, and seizures.

Vertigo  [+/-]

Vertigo is a sensation of feeling off balance. If you have such dizzy spells, you might feel that you are spinning or that the world around you is spinning. Vertigo is often caused by an inner ear problem. Some of the most common causes include BPPV, Meniere disease, and vestibular neuritis.

BPPV (benign paroxysmal positional vertigo) occurs when tiny calcium particles (canaliths) clump up in canals of the inner ear. The inner ear sends signals to the brain about head and body movements relative to gravity, and this helps us keep our balance. BPPV causes brief episodes of mild to intense dizziness, can occur for no known reason, and may be associated with age.

Meniere disease, an inner ear disorder thought to be caused by a buildup of fluid and changing pressure in the ear, can cause episodes of vertigo accompanied by ringing in the ears (tinnitus) and hearing loss.

Vestibular neuritis, or labyrinthitis, is an inner ear problem usually related to infection (usually viral) that causes inflammation in the inner ear around nerves that are important for helping the body sense balance.

Less often, vertigo may be associated with head or neck injury, migraine headaches, brain problems (such as stroke or tumor), and certain medications that cause ear damage.

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